Trepanation (or trephination) is the making of a small hole in the skull of the adult by use of a surgical drill known as a trepan. It is not synonymous with brain surgery (e.g.lobotomy) as it is performed solely on the skull bone and does not enter the brain. The purpose of trepanation is to give the closed skull of the adult an expansion window and thereby to restore the full pulsation which was lost when the skull sealed. The pulse wave then blows up the brain capillaries with blood to the level of childhood, accelerating brain metabolism and empowering the brain to permanently regain its youthful level. An equivalent volume of cerebrospinal fluid is squeezed out to make room for the extra blood and thereafter the ratio between the two fluid volumes in the brain is altered in favour of blood. Proponents claim that an increase in energy and well being is the result, and that with more contact between capillaries and brain cells the brain functions more efficiently.